R - Coin Collecting Glossary

Keeping up with the Terms, Abbreviations and Jargon

can be sometimes frightening - We made is easier to understand

We hope that the following Coin Collecting Glossary on the most frequently used terms, acronyms, and definitions will be beneficial to you.

Coin Term Glossary
























Racketeer Nickel


A gold-plated 1883 No “CENTS” Liberty Head five-cent coin (“V” nickel). The story goes that a deaf-mute gold-plated these unfamiliar coins and would buy something for a nickel or less. Sometimes, he was given change for a five-dollar gold piece since the V on the reverse could be interpreted as either five cents or five dollars! (They have also been gold-plated since that time to sell to collectors.)

Rainbow Toning


A term for toning which is usually seen on silver dollars stored in bags. The “colours of the rainbow” are represented, starting with pale yellow, to green, to red, to blue, and sometimes fading to black.


A relative term indicating that a coin within a series is very difficult to find.


The number of specimens extant of any particular numismatic item.

Rarity Scale

A term referring to a numerical-rating system such as the Universal Rarity Scale.

Used primarily in PATTERN coinage, it is used to estimate the surviving POPULATION of a coin.


  • R-8 Estimated 1-3 known (Unique or Nearly Unique)

  • R-7 Estimated 4-12 known (Extremely Rare)

  • R-6 Estimated 13-30 known (Very Rare)

  • R-5 Estimated 31-75 known (Rare)

  • R-4 Estimated 76-200 known (Very Scarce)

  • R-3 Estimated 201-500 known (Scarce)

  • R-2 Estimated 501-1,250 known (Uncommon)

  • R-1 Over 1,251 known (Common)



Numismatic Jargon for a coin or other numismatic item that has not been encapsulated by a grading service or not Certified coin.


A term for the lines that represent sun rays on coins.


Red and Brown or Red-Brown




Numismatic Jargon for a genuine coin.

Recut Date

This term is used interchangeably with a re-punched date.PCGS prefers the term re-punched date as it is more accurate. Seerepunched date for a full definition.


A term used for a copper coin that still retains 95% or more of its original mint bloom or colour. PCGS allows only a slight mellowing of colour for this designation (RD).


A copper coin that has from 5%  to 95% of its original mint colour remaining (RB).


First issued in 1947, this yearly price guide has been the “bible” of printed numismatic retail price guides.

Reeded Edge

A term for the grooved notches on the edge of some coins. These were first imparted by the Mint’s edge machine, later in the minting process by the use of close collars - these sometimes called the third die or collar die. Reeded edge is the opposite to a smooth edge ;)


The Fluting or graining on the edge of the coin.

Reeding Mark(s)

A mark or marks caused when the reeded edge of one coin hits the surface of another coin. The contact may leave just one mark or a series of staccato-like marks.

Regular Issue

A term for the coins struck for commerce. These may be both Regular and Proof strikes of a regular issue. In addition, there can die trials of regular issues.

Regular Strike

Term to denote coins struck with normal coining methods on ordinarily prepared planchets. Synonymous with a business strike.


The height of the devices of particular coin design expressed in relation to the fields. It is the portion of the design that has been raised.


A copy, or reproduction, of a particular coin. Replicas are uniface, cast copies and the words replica are normally on them.

Repunched Date


If a date was punched into the die and then punched in again in a different position it is considered to be a repunched date.


A coin struck later than indicated by its date, often with different dies.


A term used to describe a coin that has been dipped or cleaned and then has reacquired colour, whether naturally or artificially.


The opposite side to obverse or tails side, of a coin. Generally the opposite of the date side.


A machine used by mints that screens out planchets of the wrong size and shape prior to striking.


The upraised area around the edges of both sides(obverse and reverse) of a coin.  The purpose of the rim is to make coins easy stackable, protects the coin's design from damage and helps bring up the devices during the strike process.

Rim ding

Jargon for a rim nick.

Rim Nick

A term for a mark or indentation on the rim of a coin or other metallic numismatic item.

Ring Test


A test used to determine whether a coin was struck or is an electrotype or cast copy. The coin in question is balanced on a finger and gently tapped with a metal object- a pen, another coin, and so on. Struck coins have a high-pitched ring or tone, while electrotypes and cast copies have little or none. This test is not infallible; some struck coins do not ring because of planchet defects such as cracks or gas occlusions; also, some cast copies have been filled with glass (or other substances) and do ring.


A numismatic purchase that is bought substantially below the price for which it can be resold.


A set number of coins “rolled up” in a coin wrapper. In old times, a roll meant the coins were rolled up in a paper wrapper, today they are likely to be slid into a plastic coin tube.

Roll friction

Minor displacement of metal, mainly on the high points, seen on coins stored in rolls.

Rolled Edge

A term is synonymous with rim (the raised edge around a coin). This has become part of the vernacular because of the Rolled Edge Indian Head eagle.

Rolled Edge Ten


A common name for the Indian Head eagle struck as a regular issue with a mintage reported by some as 20,000, but according to official Mint correspondence, the figure was 31,550. However, some have considered it a pattern because all but 42 coins were reportedly melted. It is occasionally seen circulated but the average coin is Mint State 63 or higher.

Roller Marks


Term to describe the mostly parallel incuse lines seen on some coins after striking. These were originally thought to be lines resulting from the debris “scoring” the metal strips before the blanks were cut. However, new research has pointed to the final step of strip preparation, the drawbar. To reduce the strips to the proper thickness, the final step was to pass them through the drawbar. It certainly seems logical that debris in the drawbar may cause these lines, if so, then draw-bar marks or lines would be a more appropriate term.

Roman Finish


An experimental Proof surface used mainly on U.S. gold coins of 1909 and 1910. This is a hybrid surface with more reflectivity than Matte surfaces, but less than brilliant Proofs. The surface is slightly scaly, similar to that of Satin Proofs.


Short for a Pan-Pac commemorative fifty-dollar coin.


A term for slight wear, often referring just to the high points or the fields.

If we missed a word or phrase, please let us know. We would like to grow and expand this list with your help.